Often times people stumble across oxygen and ozone healing therapies and become quite excited by what they have discovered, only to find that the learning curve on equipment, methods, protocols and safety concerns is overwhelming. They often give up before giving any oxygen therapy a fair try. This paper will help to demystify the equipment used to produce ozone for air, water and therapeutic uses.
There are basically two types of ozonators and two accepted methods of ozone production. The two types are air-fed ozonators and oxygen-fed ozonators. The two methods of ozone production are cold corona discharge and ultraviolet. Each type of generator and method of ozone production has its unique features, advantages and drawbacks. The most accepted method of ozone production for medical protocols is oxygen-fed cold corona discharge but cold plasma is also used. The purest ozone is made from what is called dual dielectric medical grade ozone generators because there are no metals in the gas stream of the ozone produced.
These ozonators fall into two categories: air purifiers and water purifiers
Air purifiers produce ozone either by corona discharge or by ultraviolet rays in the wavelength of 185 to 220 nanometers.
The advantage of cold corona is that they are very efficient, have long life, are fully ozone output adjustable and require very little maintenance. Periodic maintenance depending on environment is required. Simple cleaning of the ozone-producing cell is necessary. The disadvantages of cold corona air purifiers are that they produce NoX (nitrogen compounds) like nitric acid and nitrous oxide in small quantities from room air in proportion to the amount of humidity in the air. The dewpoint temperature of air must be minus 60 C before this is prevented. No matter what a manufacturer claims about their units not producing NoX, this is simply not true if the air has any appreciable humidity. For this reason air-fed ozonators are not acceptable for medical uses. NoX is not much of a concern for the majority of people since the amounts are small and the benefits of the ozone produced far outweigh the NoX impurities. A few people experience bad reactions from the small amounts of NoX produced by air-fed air purifiers. Some air-fed purifiers have an added bonus of an ionizer built into the unit which negatively ionizes particles in the air, making them heavier so they fall to the floor. The health benefits of negative ions are well documented.
Ultraviolet air-fed generators have the advantage that they do not produce NoX, even in humid air. They are less efficient than corona discharge, are not output adjustable, and the UV bulbs have to be replaced annually. This is problem because the lamps contain mercury and must be disposed of in an environmentally safe manner. Most States and Provinces have recycling specifically for this purpose. Laws in many places now require manufacturers of such units to provide recycling for the used lamps.
Air-fed air ozonators come with a variety of features such as on/off timers, different sizes of and air movement from fans, a wide variety of ozone outputs and features which supposedly make them unique. Air-fed air purifiers are typically measured in mg/hr of ozone output or by the number of square feet the unit is supposed to purify. Beware of false claims! Due Diligence is required to find the perfect air ozonator and reliable manufacturer for your specific needs.
Air-fed water purifiers also can be either corona discharge or ultraviolet. They employ an air pump either internal or external to pump room air through the ozonator. The output gas mixture is then channeled by ozone resistant tubing to a diffuser stone which is placed in the water. This gas mixture, containing ozone, bubbles through the water to purify it. To avoid the presence of NoX in the gas produced by corona discharge air-fed ozone generators, the air can be dried with an air drier which is typically hooked up to the intake of the air pump supplying the air to the ozonator. Nox is not produced by ultraviolet air-fed water ozonators. If the air being supplied to an air-fed corona generator is not dried, nitric acid can build up in the ozone generator. Unless it is allowed to escape, the acid will eventually destroy the ozonator. The quality of the air pump is a concern in a water ozonator, since it is usually the weakest link. The pumps in Chinese ozonators will fail quickly if used to ozonate more viscous liquids like oils for long periods of time.
Good quality air-fed water ozonators are inexpensive, effective, and can be used for a number of uses like ozonation of water, oils, soaking vegetables and meats in ozonated water, ozonating bathwater and for short term use as an air purifier.
Air-fed water ozonators vary widely in quality, design, price, warranty, output of ozone, features and durability. Air-fed water ozonators are typically measured in mg/hr of ozone output. This is a measure of the amount of the molecular weight of the ozone produced in one hour. Beware of false claims here as well. Due Diligence is also required when choosing an ozonator for these purposes. One main feature of air-fed water ozonators is portability. They are relatively small and portable.
Oxygen-fed ozonators take the production of ozone to a whole new level. Since the ozonator is being fed a gas that is 100% oxygen and not nominally 20% as in room air, the ozone produced is of much higher concentration and purity. The expense of an oxygen-fed ozone system for some is prohibitive, as it involves the inclusion of an oxygen tank, oxygen regulator, specialized tubing and accessories for the various ozone protocols. The oxygen-fed ozonators themselves are higher priced because of the necessity for higher quality materials. Strong ozone will interact with all but about five elements on the Periodic Table of Elements, so care must be taken in manufacture to exclude materials that can be oxidized and create impurities in the gas stream. The main drawbacks to the use of oxygen-fed ozonators are lack of portability and poor availability to an oxygen source for the refilling of oxygen tanks. Oxygen concentrators can be used to provide oxygen to oxygen-fed ozonators instead of an oxygen tank.
UV ozonators are not acceptable for use with ozone medical protocols since the output from the UV lamp varies far too much for accuracy of ozone concentration.
The ozone output from oxygen-fed ozonators is usually measured in mcg/ml or mg/l or gamma. This is an indication of the molecular weight of the ozone produced in the volume measurement indicated of ozone/oxygen mixture. Gamma is the same as mcg/ml and mg/l.
Oxygen-fed ozonators fall into two categories: 1) ozonators with metals in the gas stream 2) ozonators that have no metals in the gas stream
1)Metals in gas stream
Oxygen-fed ozonators containing metals in the stream of gas moving past the ozone producing cell emit ions of metals into the ozone produced. This is because the anode of the cell is made of metal, whereas the cathode is glass or quartz. This is not a concern when the ozonator has high quality metals and is being used for ozonation of water, oils, ozonating a steam sauna, ozone showers, insufflations, body bagging and cupping, vegetable soak, ozonated enemas or colonics, ozonating bath water and a number of other less evasive protocols. It is a large concern when the anode is made from easily oxidized metals like aluminum. It is now accepted conventional wisdom within the ozone medical circles that oxygen-fed ozonators with metals in the gas stream should not be used for blood work such as AHT (Autohematherapy) and injections of any type. For all other mentioned protocols, the benefits of the ozone produced outweigh the effects of the metal ions produced. There are few metal ions produced from generators made of 316 stainless steel.
Oxygen-fed ozonators vary greatly in user features, ozone output concentration, quality of materials and construction. They vary greatly in price depending on their quality and features.
All oxygen-fed ozonators produce higher concentration of ozone at lower flow rates of oxygen and conversely, lower concentration of ozone at higher flow rates of oxygen. This is because the corona field of these generators is capable of rearranging only a finite number of oxygen molecules from O2 to O3 as the oxygen passes through the corona field. As the oxygen moves slowly through the field, the field is capable of rearranging more oxygen molecules thus creating a greater ratio of O3 in the gas. Conversely, as oxygen moves quickly through the field, fewer molecules become O3 and the ratio of O3 in the gas is lower.
2)No metals in the gas stream
Cold corona ozonators made with no metals in the gas stream produce the highest quality ozone. These are called dual-dielectric ozonators. Both the anode and cathode are made from glass or quartz which is not able to be oxidized by ozone. All other materials in the gas stream have also been chosen for their resistance to oxidation, including tubing fittings, the tubing itself and all parts of the ozone producing cold corona cell. These are the only ozonators fit to be used for the above-mentioned blood work protocols. There are two ways of manufacturing dual dielectric units. One is cold corona. The other is cold plasma. Cold plasma generators are of high purity but the concentration is not only non-adjustable except through oxygen flow control, but also lack in the ability to output high concentrations of ozone at normal flow rates of oxygen.
High quality cold corona generators have the ability to reduce the amount of corona or electrical field that produces the ozone, thereby making them fully adjustable for a specific concentration of ozone output at any given oxygen flow rate. High quality cold corona ozonators vary greatly in features and price, depending on specific use and preference of operation. Some of the features of a very high quality (and expensive) dual-dielectric ozonator include oxygen flow meter, adjustable settings for corona output (and thereby ozone concentration) luer-lock connectors for attaching syringes and accessories, and built-in ozone output stability electronics. Dual dielectric ozonators can be used for all ozone protocols. If money is no object and portability is not an issue, then this is the best unit to purchase for its overall purity and variety of uses.